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These are the key points identified. As the theoretical framework of this study is uses and gratifications, the initial codes that were identified were points that related to why the participant used computers and how the participant was affected by this computer use.
Next, the initial codes were grouped into themes. After that, the final themes and subthemes were sorted and consolidated and were those that emerged across, not within, interviews. These were about social networking via the Internet, and social networking without using the Internet, and how the one affects the other. It is a limitation of this methodology that the conclusions drawn in the research article cannot be generalised. However, an advantage of the in-depth interviews as methodological choice is that the data collection times were free and uninterrupted.
Results and discussion a Use of computers. The three eldest participants, aged early 80s to early 90s, were the more regular computer users. One of them had a Macintosh computer and his own Internet connection in his room, and used this every evening. Another participant also had her computer in her room with her own Internet connection, and used it every night. Of the three youngest participants, all in their 70s, only one used the computer on a regular basis —a couple of times a week, usually Skyping on a Sunday evening.
The other two wanted to use the computer to email more regularly. All six of the participants used email, mostly to correspond with family and friends.
One of them used to correspond with colleagues but had not done so since he retired. Another participant had only started using computers three months previously and had only ever sent about three emails to her son living on an island off the coast of Spain. These two participants were among the youngest of the six participants.
Half of the participants used computers to play card games. One of them also played Scrabble, an application on Facebook. And you can put in words and you can take them out and you can take all day. One of the participants who did not play computer games found it too difficult to control the mouse. Another said that games were a waste of time.
The three eldest participants used Google to find information. One of them also did all his banking online but expressed concern about security, which was a reason given by another for not using online banking.
Only one of the participants played DVDs and listened to music on the computer.
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He said that he had a music library of 10, tracks. Another participant kept photographs of her family on her laptop. A third participant, although she emailed some people, also used the computer to type and print regular letters to post to a friend. With regard to social media, it was the three eldest participants who used Facebook. Two of them brought up the subject of Twitter without being asked about it in the interview, one of them saying he used it and another saying that she did not use it as she did not know how.
Three participants used Skype and a fourth wanted to start using Skype. The participant who used a Macintosh said he belonged to three Mac user groups. Gratification from using computers for entertainment or relaxation was not very prevalent across interviews. Nevertheless, one of the effects of this use was relief from boredom.
Another participant said that he played Solitaire on the computer whenever he was put on hold when making a call to a service provider. While this particular situation may not be something that happened very often, this same participant explained that he used the computer to keep himself mentally active. For example, writing had been part of his profession, so after he retired he decided he would write letters to the media and use the dictionary and thesaurus on his computer to help maintain the quality of his language usage.
Across half of the interviews it emerged that the older adults obtained gratification from using computers for information. Two of the eldest participants said that during conversations they made mental notes of things they wanted to know more about, and then googled these when they were in front of the computer.
Therefore these two participants obtained both information and social utility gratifications from googling information for conversational currency. These same two participants also read news online.
One of them had impaired hearing and used Google to supplement information from songs like lyrics and films like plot revealed in dialogue. One of the participants who wanted to use the computer to email more regularly also wanted to start using computers for information —email and information were the only computer uses that were important to him. Overall, the greatest gratification that the older adults obtained out of computers was from social utility usage.
Email and Skype were used to communicate with family and friends both near and far. Email was preferred above SMS because more could be said, above handwritten letters because less could be said and above phone-calls because it was cheaper. The three participants who used Skype found it easy but were not completely satisfied, the most common reason being uneasiness with seeing the other person and being seen.
Social utility via Facebook was more observation than communication. The older adults in my study obtained gratification from viewing news posted on Facebook pages, and even more from viewing photographs posted by family. Some posts provoked a response and brief communication with Facebook friends, but the most significant effect of Facebook use on participants appeared to be a sense of affiliation with family as they followed their lives in photographs. The older adults in this study made contact with It becomes apparent that a sense of affiliation or others in society via email.
As with conversational currency, contacted in person from time to time. The older this reveals a link between the information and social adults described social networking via the Internet as utility uses of computers. The notion has been connon-intrusive. And two of them were also Email and Skype were used to communicate with family and members of, respectively, the Yacht Club and the Mac user friends both near and far.
Email was preferred above SMS groups. These same three particibecause more could be said, above handwritten letters pants were the more regular because less could be said and above phone-calls because computer users in the study. One of them explained his it was cheaper. And being stuck in the house, not pant, non-intrusive meant distant and she preferred being able to go away too often, [using the computer] person-to-person communication. A third participant was my relief, to keep in touch with what was going said that although emails came across as stilted, at least on in the rest of the world.
So that created a habit that they were accurate. Whether viewed positively or this is the way I keep myself interested. This illustrates social networking via the Internet had increased their the point that participants who used computers for contact with some people.
My life would not be the phone calls to various people. There was interpersosame without a computer. I mean how often does anybody of the participants showed significant motivation for actually ever call, you know? It would be good anyway social locales. As s and s uses and gratifications society outside of computer use was not weakened. The older adults were private about their computer use. There were two exceptions.
Firstly, there were two participants who from time to time would try to get their husbands interested in what they were doing on the computer. Secondly, five of the six participants would from time to time give or receive help with using computers. Kanayama found that elderly people are becoming part of virtual communities, increasing social connectedness to others by sharing stories and memories online. The participant who played Scrabble with a friend via Facebook also emailed this friend and met up at the Yacht Club every Friday where some of their topics of conversation would come from their Scrabble game or emails.
And a participant who liked to help people in need provided face-to-face counsel with these people and kept in contact with them afterwards via email. The two examples research might compare use of computers by different age from this study of participants groups within the older adult age group, as in this study the whose use of computers strengthened their contact with eldest participants got more uses and gratifications out of others in society outside of computer use also add to this computers than the youngest participants.
In the s, research showed that older adults came away from computer skills training courses feeling more familiar with computers and therefore more confident — both about computer use and about their place as older adults in a technological society Morgan, One of the participants in this study supported these findings when she spoke about the help she received, and passed on, with using the computers at The Glen: Now I Skype my brother.
I used to contact him by phone, letter —the old fashioned way. Furthermore, while participants did not usually talk with other people about their use of the computers specifically, there were two participants whose use of computers strengthened their contact with others in society outside of computer use. Similarly in Japan, 5. Conclusions The main uses and gratifications elderly people get out of computers in South Africa were explored in this study.
From in-depth interviews with six residents of The Glen Retirement Hotel it was found that the elderly people used email and social media to keep in contact with family and friends outside of, and sometimes even within the neighborhood.
The primary gratification was thus to enhance social interaction, as well as information seeking. Furthermore, keeping in contact meant not only communication, but also observation of activity — like news, photographs and discussions.
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It was in this computer usage that information and social utility gratifications overlapped. Participants felt connected with society both through communication with and observation of people, and through keeping themselves informed about news and topics that came up in conversation.
By using the Internet they communicated with some people more than they had before. Although there were participants who kept in contact with people within the neighborhood via email, this did not replace face-to face communication with these people in local social locales. Instead, in one case it provided topics of conversation like Scrabbleand in another it allowed communication to continue beyond one in-person counselling session. The participants used games and other media on computers for entertainment and relief from boredom, but these were not main uses and gratifications in the findings.
Future research might compare use of computers by different age groups within the older adult age group, as in this study the eldest participants got more uses and gratifications out of computers than the youngest participants.
Older Adults on Facebook: Florida Communication Journal, 40 2 Training Older Adults to Use the Computer: Issues related to the Workplace, Attitudes, and Training. Educational Gerontology, 23 5 Journal of Cross Cultural Gerontology, 22, Using Thematic Analysis in Psychology. I ll take all the risk! What do you look in a person for dating. This way, psychological and social standpoint.
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